First aid measures for electric shock at the hotte

  • Detail

First aid measures for electric shock on site

the basic principle of first aid for electric shock is to take active measures on site to protect the lives of the wounded, reduce the injury and pain, and quickly contact the medical department for treatment according to the needs of the injury

carefully observe the general condition of the wounded to prevent the injury from worsening. In case of respiratory and cardiac arrest, rescue on site immediately. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation supports breathing and blood circulation, and supplies oxygen to brain, heart and other important organs. The successful condition of first aid is fast action and correct operation. Any delay and wrong operation will lead to the aggravation or death of the wounded

first, disconnect from the power supply

first of all, make the person who gets an electric shock quickly disconnect from the power supply, the sooner the better. Because the longer the current acts, the more serious the damage

to disconnect from the power supply is to disconnect the switch, knife switch or other circuit breaking equipment of the part of live equipment that the electrocuter contacts; Or try to separate the person who gets an electric shock from the live equipment. When disconnecting from the power supply, the rescue personnel should not only save people, but also pay attention to protecting themselves. Before the person who gets an electric shock is disconnected from the power supply, the ambulance personnel are not allowed to directly touch the wounded with their hands, because there is a risk of electric shock; If the person who gets an electric shock is at a high place, he will fall from a high place after disengaging the power supply. Therefore, preventive measures should be taken

for various electric shock occasions, take the following measures when disconnecting from the power supply

1. Electric shock on low-voltage equipment

if the person who gets an electric shock touches the low-voltage live equipment, the rescue personnel should try to quickly cut off the power supply, such as opening the power switch or knife switch, unplugging the power plug, etc., or using insulating tools, such as dry sticks, boards, ropes and other non-conductive things to release the person who gets an electric shock; You can also grab the dry but not intimate clothes of the person who gets an electric shock and drag them away. Remember to avoid touching metal objects and the exposed body of the person who gets an electric shock; You can also wear insulating gloves or wrap your hands with dry clothes to insulate and release the person who gets an electric shock; The rescue personnel can also stand on the insulating mat or dry board to rescue themselves

it is best to use one hand to release the person who gets an electric shock from the conductor. If the current enters the ground through the person who gets an electric shock, and the person who gets an electric shock holds the wire tightly, he can try to plug it under his body with a dry wooden board to isolate it from the ground, or he can cut the wire with a dry wooden axe or pliers with insulating handle. Cut the wires separately, one by one, and stand on insulated objects or dry boards as much as possible

2. Electric shock on high-voltage equipment

if the person who gets an electric shock touches the high-voltage live equipment, the rescue personnel should quickly cut off the power supply, or use insulating tools suitable for the voltage level (wear insulating gloves, insulating boots and insulating rods) to release the person who gets an electric shock. The rescue personnel shall pay attention to maintaining a necessary safety distance between themselves and the surrounding live parts during the rescue process

3. Electric shock on the overhead line

when the fracture is very close to both ends of the test piece on the overhead line tower, if it is a low-voltage live line and the line power can be cut off immediately, the power supply should be cut off quickly, or the rescue personnel should quickly climb the pole and tie their own safety belt, and then pull the person who gets an electric shock away from the power supply with wire pliers with insulating rubber handle, dry non-conductive objects or insulating objects; If it is a high-voltage live line and it is impossible to cut off the switch quickly, the method of hanging a metal short line with sufficient section and appropriate length can be used to trip the power switch. Before throwing and hanging, one end of the short line shall be fixed on the iron tower or grounding downlead, and the other end shall be tied with heavy objects. However, when throwing the short line, attention shall be paid to prevent electric arc from hurting people or wire breakage from endangering personal safety. No matter what the voltage line is, the rescue personnel should pay attention to the possibility of falling from height and touching other electric lines again when disconnecting the person from the power supply

4. Electric shock on the broken high-voltage wire

if the person who gets an electric shock touches the broken high-voltage wire on the ground, if it is not confirmed that the line is dead, the ambulance personnel cannot approach the breaking point to within m before taking safety measures (such as wearing insulating boots or temporary feet and jumping close to the person who gets an electric shock), so as to prevent stepping voltage from hurting people. After being separated from the live wire, the person who gets an electric shock should also be brought away to m away quickly, and the first aid for electric shock should be started immediately. Only when it is confirmed that the line has no electricity, first aid can be carried out immediately after the person who gets an electric shock leaves the electric shock wire

II. Treatment of the injured after being disconnected from the power supply

if the injured person with electric shock is conscious, he should lie flat on the spot, observe closely, and do not stand or walk for the time being

if the injured person is unconscious, he/she should lie flat on his/her back on the spot to ensure that his/her airway is unobstructed, and spend 5S calling the injured person or patting his/her shoulder to determine whether the injured person has lost consciousness. It is forbidden to shake the head of the wounded to call the wounded

the wounded who need to be rescued should be rescued correctly on the spot immediately, and try to contact the medical department to take over the treatment

III. determination of breathing and heartbeat

if the injured person with electric shock is lost, the breathing and heartbeat of the injured person should be determined by watching, listening and trying within 10s

see if there are ups and downs in the chest and abdomen of the wounded

listen: put your ears close to the mouth and nose of the wounded and listen for exhalation

test: test whether there is expiratory airflow in the mouth and nose. Then use two fingers to gently test whether there is pulsation of the carotid artery in the depression near the laryngeal node on one side (left or right)

if the result of seeing, listening and testing is neither breathing nor carotid pulsation, it can be judged that breathing and heartbeat stop

IV. cardiopulmonary resuscitation

when the breathing and heartbeat of the injured person suffering from electric shock stop, they should immediately take measures. 2. The cardiopulmonary resuscitation method that leads to the slippage of the tensile testing machine due to equipment reasons should be correctly carried out on-site rescue. Cardiopulmonary resuscitation measures mainly include the following three kinds

1. Unobstructed airway

the injured person with electric shock stops breathing. It is important to always ensure that the airway is unobstructed. If there is a foreign body in the mouth of the wounded, turn his body and head sideways at the same time, quickly insert it from the corner of the mouth with one or two fingers, and take out the foreign body. Pay attention to prevent foreign bodies from pushing into the deep throat during operation

the method of raising the head and chin can be used to unblock the airway. Place one hand on the forehead of the person who gets an electric shock, and the fingers of the other hand will lift his mandible upward. Both hands will push his head back together, and the root of his tongue will be lifted accordingly, so that the airway can be unblocked. It is strictly forbidden to put pillows or other items under the head of the wounded. Raising and leaning forward of the head will aggravate airway obstruction and reduce or even disappear the blood flow to the brain during chest external compression

2. Mouth to mouth (nose) artificial respiration

mouth to mouth (nose) artificial respiration method. While keeping the airway of the wounded unobstructed, the ambulance personnel pinched the nasal wing of the wounded with the fingers of the hand placed on the forehead of the wounded. After deep inhalation, the ambulance personnel tightly closed with the wounded mouth to mouth. Under the condition of no air leakage, first continuously blow twice, each time for 1 ~ 1.5s. If there is still no pulsation in the carotid artery after two blows, it can be determined that the heartbeat has stopped, and chest compression should be performed immediately at the same time

except for two large mouth blows at the beginning, the blowing volume of normal mouth to mouth (nose) breathing does not need to be too large to avoid stomach expansion. When blowing and relaxing, pay attention to the undulating breathing movement of the wounded chest. If there is a large resistance during blowing, it may be that the head is not tilted back enough, which should be corrected in time. The injured person with electric shock, such as his teeth tightly closed, delicious nasal artificial respiration. During mouth to nose artificial respiration, 9. Maximum impact height: 2000mm. Close the lips of the wounded to prevent air leakage

3. External chest compression

(1) compression position. Correct pressing position is an important premise to ensure the effect of chest external pressing. The steps to determine the correct pressing position are:

1) the index finger and middle finger of the right hand go up along the lower edge of the right auxiliary arch of the injured person, and find the midpoint of the junction of ribs and sternum

2) two fingers are aligned, the middle finger is placed at the midpoint of the notch (the bottom of the xiphoid process), and the index finger is placed flat on the lower part of the sternum

3) the palm root of the other hand is close to the upper edge of the index finger and placed on the sternum, which is the correct pressing position

(2) pressing posture. The correct pressing posture is the basic guarantee to achieve the effect of external chest compression. The correct pressing posture should meet the following requirements:

1) make the injured person lie on his back in a flat and hard place, and the ambulance personnel either stand or kneel beside one shoulder of the injured person. The two shoulders of the ambulance personnel are located directly above the sternum of the injured person, the two arms are straight, the elbow joints are fixed and inflexible, the palms of both hands overlap, the fingers are cocked up, and do not touch the chest wall of the injured person

2) take the hip joint as the fulcrum and use the gravity of the upper body to vertically compress the sternum of normal adults by 3 ~ 5cm (children and thin people should reduce it as appropriate)

3) immediately relax after pressing to the required level, but the root of the rescuer's palm shall not leave the chest wall when relaxing

the compression must be effective, and the effective sign is that the carotid pulse can be touched during the compression process

(3) operating frequency

1) external chest compression should be carried out uniformly, about 80 times per minute, and the time of each compression and relaxation is the same

2) chest external compression and mouth to mouth (nose) artificial respiration are carried out at the same time. The rhythm is: single person rescue is to blow twice (15:2) after each 15 presses, and repeat; In the rescue of two persons, the other person blows air once (5:1) after each five times of pressing, and repeat it

after pressing and blowing for 1min (equivalent to four 15:2 pressure blowing cycles during single person rescue), the method of seeing, listening and trying shall be used to complete the re determination of whether the breathing and heartbeat of the wounded have recovered in 5 ~ 7S. If it is determined that the carotid artery has pulsation but no breathing, stop external chest compression, and then perform mouth-to-mouth artificial respiration twice, and then blow once in 5S (i.e. 12 times/min). If the pulse and breathing have not recovered, continue to adhere to cardiopulmonary resuscitation

in the process of rescue, it should be judged again every few minutes, and the time of each judgment should not exceed 5 ~ 7S. The on-site rescue personnel shall not give up the on-site rescue before the medical personnel take over the rescue

v. the movement and transfer of the wounded during the rescue process

cardiopulmonary resuscitation should be carried out on site. Do not move the wounded at will for convenience. If it is really necessary to move, the rescue interruption time should not exceed 30s

when moving the wounded or sending the wounded to the hospital, in addition to making the wounded lie flat on the stretcher and placing a flat hardwood board on his back, the rescue should continue during the movement or sending to the hospital. Those with cardiac arrest and respiratory arrest should continue to be rescued by cardiopulmonary resuscitation, which cannot be terminated before medical personnel take over the treatment

if the heartbeat and respiration of the wounded have recovered after rescue, the operation of cardiopulmonary resuscitation can be suspended. However, in the early stage of recovery of heartbeat and respiration, sudden arrest may occur again. Close monitoring should be carried out, and paralysis should not be allowed. Be ready to rescue again at any time. After the initial recovery, you are confused or in a trance, beating. According to the important requirements of the dynamometer device, you are trying to make the wounded quiet

VI. first aid for electric shock on poles or at heights

if someone is found to have an electric shock at heights, we should strive for time to start the rescue at heights as soon as possible. Rescuers should carry necessary tools, insulating tools and strong ropes when climbing, and call for emergency help

rescue personnel should contact the injured for rescue only after confirming that the person who gets an electric shock has been isolated from the power supply and that there is no dangerous power supply within the safe distance of the environment involved by the rescue personnel, and should pay attention to the possibility of falling from high altitude

in case of electric shock on the pole, the wounded should be immediately sent to the ground with ropes, or take possible rapid and effective measures to send them to the platform

before transporting the wounded from high to the ground, mouth to mouth (nose) blowing should be carried out for 4 times. The injured person with electric shock should continue immediately after being sent to the ground

Copyright © 2011 JIN SHI